In response to the climate challenge, the agreement recognizes that states have common but differentiated responsibilities, i.e. according to their national capabilities and specificities. The agreement promotes universal access to sustainable energy in developing countries, particularly in Africa. She says it can be achieved through increased use of renewable energy. The final text of the Paris Agreement, considered the world`s first universal climate agreement, is 31 pages long. While the plenary agreed on the final draft on Saturday afternoon, it must now be ratified. At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane are gases that accumulate in the atmosphere and prevent radiation from the Earth`s surface to space, creating what is called the greenhouse effect.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the main international panel on this issue, the concentration of these thermal gases has increased significantly since pre-industrial times and has not been observed for at least 800,000 years. Carbon dioxide (the main cause of climate change) has increased by 40 per cent, nitrous oxide by 20 per cent and methane by 150 per cent since 1750, mainly due to the burning of dirty fossil fuels. The IPCC says it is “extremely likely” that these emissions have been primarily responsible for the rise in global temperatures since the 1950s. Meanwhile, deforestation and forest degradation have also contributed to their fair share of global carbon emissions. The EU and its member states are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. In order for the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had to file their ratification instruments. The agreement recognizes the role of non-partisan stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others.
The aim of the agreement is to reduce global warming as described in Article 2 and to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC by: The agreement also provides that each country should strive to reduce its PRODUCTION of CHARBON “as soon as possible”. These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those set out in other international agreements. Although the system does not include financial sanctions, the requirements are intended to easily monitor the progress of individual nations and promote a sense of overall group pressure, discouraging any towing of feet among countries that might consider it. Currently, 197 countries – every nation on earth, the last signatory is war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. 179 of them have consolidated their climate proposals with official approval, including, for the time being, the United States.